The shoulder is the most complex and unstable joint in the body and it can get injured easily. Shoulder surgery is a means of treating injured shoulders. Many surgeries have been developed to repair the muscles, connective tissue, or damaged joints that can arise from traumatic or overuse injuries to the shoulder.
The shoulder is a ball and socket joint. The shoulder joint comprises bone ligaments tendons and muscles that connect the arm to the torso
Clavical (collar bone)
Scapula (shoulder blade)
Humerus (long bone of the arm.)
Acromioclavicular joint – The AC joint gives us the ability to raise the arm above head.
Glenohumeral joint – This is a ball-socket type joint. The Ball is the top rounded part of humerus and the Socket is bowl shaped part of scapula called the glenoid into which the ball fits. The joint allows the arm to move in a circular rotation as well as towards and away from the body.
Structures which give stability to shoulder are
Labrum– piece of a cartilage that cushions the humerus head and glenoids. It deepens the glenoid cavity and stabilizes the joint.
Rotator cuff muscle– supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis form a group that pull the humerus into scapula. It also helps in rotation of the arm.
Two sacs like structures called bursa are also located in the shoulder
Subcoracoid bursa-They secrete synovial fluid which helps to reduce friction between moving parts. Together all of these structures create one of the most flexible joint in the body.
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